Suicide - MOGII

www.ZeroAttempts.org

ZERO
ATTEMPTS
One Million & Counting
when IN CRISIS
cALL 800-273-8255 or
text "sos" to 741741

Having suicidal thoughts? Watch this video..

Serious about dieing by suicide? Call 911
Crisis Text Line Text "SOS" to
741741
California Youth Crisis Line - 800-843-5200
Oregon teen2teen Helpline - 4-10pm PST daily - 877.968.8491
Deaf/Hard of Hearing Text "TalkWithUs" to 66746
Spanish Speakers text "Hablanos" to 66746

Want to talk?
800.273.TALK (8255) or TDD 800.448.1833
Curry County Crisis Line - 877-519-9322
Oregon Crisis Lines by County
Oregon Youthline for Teens -
4-10pm PST daily - 877.968.8491

Real Time U.S. Death Toll
Year-to-date Suicide Report by Oregon County
Curry County Suicidal Subjects for 2018

What does MOGII mean?
"So You Wanna Kill Yourself?  Gays and Suicide."
LGBT Youth - CDC
Suicide among LGBT youth - Wikipedia

What does MOGII mean?


MOGII is a fairly new acronym, and while I think it's more descriptive of the broad spectrum of sexuality and gender identities, it could be used in conjunction with GSRM or LGBTQI until more people are aware of its meaning. MOGII stands for Marginalized Orientations, Gender Identities, and Intersex. No need to label everyone, because everyone is included. Panromantic? Marginalized orientation. Demiboy? Marginalized gender identity. They're all covered, everyone is welcome, no one is ignored or left out, and no arguing over what each letter stands for. Done.

GSRM stands for "Gender Sexual Romantic Minorities." It is an all-inclusive term for anyone outside of the cisgendered, heterosexual spectrum. As it stands, LGBTQA+ does NOT include everyone which brings about a sense of emnity within the community. See www.thecitizenswhocare.org/list-of-gender-terms.html
Source: www.google.com/search?q=mogii&rlz=1C1NHXL_enUS725US726&oq=mogii&aqs=chrome..69i57j0l5.17907j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

"So You Wanna Kill Yourself?  Gays and Suicide."


Gay men are six times more likely to attempt suicide than their straight counterparts and the numbers increase exponentially during the holidays. This story appears in the Dec/Jan 99 issue of Genre and examines the issues behind why they are taking their own lives, and offers some solutions to the holiday blues. (Also see our own # 7 Happy Holidaze A report from P-FLAG (Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays) states that in a study of 5,000 gay men and women, 35 percent of gay men and 38 percent of lesbians have considered or attempted suicide. The statistics are even higher among gay teens: The Department of Health study indicates that gay youth are up to six times more likely to attempt suicide than straight teens, and gay teenagers account for up to 30 percent of all teenage suicides in the nation.

"Far more women suffer from depression that men do, so it seems odd that women would commit suicide at only one-fourth the rate of men. The key difference between the two sexes may be that women talk out their problems. George E. Murphy, an emeritus professor of psychiatry at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, says that women may be protected because they are more likely to consider the consequences of suicide on family members or others. Women also approach personal problems differently than men and more often seek help long before they reach the point of considering suicide. 'As a result, women get better treatment for their depressions,' Murphy says. To reduce the rate of suicide in men, Murphy suggests that physicians should be alert for risk factors in men and refer them into treatment. Writing in the Journal of Comprehensive Psychiatry, he says that identifying men at risk require mental health professionals to recognize that depressed men may understate emotional distress or difficulty with their problems."  Black Men, 3/99. Source:  HealthScout, www.healthscout.com

It's important for people with suicidal feelings to let themselves be assisted in overcoming deep depression. It's also a good idea to talk about your feelings with friends. No man is an island and there's nothing wrong with leaning on people who love you in times of need.

See Suicide Prevention Services available locally. Dial 411 for your city's Suicide Prevention Hotline, or try your local Gay & Lesbian Center, which offers referrals for counseling, domestic violence and suicide prevention.

LGBT Youth


Historically, YRBS and other studies have gathered data on lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth but have not included questions about transgender and questioning/queer youth. As that changes and data becomes available, this content will be updated to include information regarding transgender and questioning/queer youth.

Most lesbian, gay, bisexual, (LGB) youth are happy and thrive during their adolescent years. Having a school that creates a safe and supportive learning environment for all students and having caring and accepting parents are especially important. Positive environments can help all youth achieve good grades and maintain good mental and physical health. However, some LGB youth are more likely than their heterosexual peers to experience negative health and life outcomes.

For youth to thrive in schools and communities, they need to feel socially, emotionally, and physically safe and supported. A positive school climate has been associated with decreased depression, suicidal feelings, substance use, and unexcused school absences among LGB students.1

Experiences with Violence

Compared with other students, negative attitudes toward LGB persons may put these youth at increased risk for experiences with violence.2 ‘Violence’ can include behaviors such as bullying, teasing, harassment, and physical assault.

According to data from the 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), of surveyed LGB students:

  • 10% were threatened or injured with a weapon on school property
  • 34% were bullied on school property
  • 28% were bullied electronically
  • 23% of LGB students who had dated or went out with someone during the 12 months before the survey had experienced sexual dating violence in the prior year
  • 18% of LGB students had experienced physical dating violence
  • 18% of LGB students had been forced to have sexual intercourse at some point in their lives.3

How CDC Promotes Health Safety Among Youth – Read LGBTQ* Youth Programs-At-A-Glance

Effects on Education and Mental Health

Exposure to violence can have negative effects on the education and health of any young person and may account for some of the health-related disparities between LGB and heterosexual youth.4-6 According to the 2015 YRBS, LGB students were 140% (12% v. 5%) more likely to not go to school at least one day during the 30 days prior to the survey because of safety concerns, compared with heterosexual students.3 While not a direct measure of school performance, absenteeism has been linked to low graduation rates, which can have lifelong consequences.

A complex combination of factors can impact youth health outcomes. LGB youth are at greater risk for depression, suicide, substance use, and sexual behaviors that can place them at increased risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).3 Nearly one-third (29%) of LGB youth had attempted suicide at least once in the prior year compared to 6% of heterosexual youth.3 In 2014, young gay and bisexual men accounted for 8 out of 10 HIV diagnoses among youth.7

What Schools Can Do

Schools can implement evidence-based policies, procedures, and activities designed to promote a healthy environment for all youth, including LGB students. For example, research has shown that in schools with LGB support groups (such as gay-straight alliances), LGB students were less likely to experience threats of violence, miss school because they felt unsafe, or attempt suicide than those students in schools without LGB support groups.8 A recent study found that LGB students had fewer suicidal thoughts and attempts when schools had gay-straight alliances and policies prohibiting expression of homophobia in place for 3 or more years.9

To help promote health and safety among LGB youth, schools can implement the following policies and practices (with accompanying citations)

  • Encourage respect for all students and prohibit bullying, harassment, and violence against all students.10
  • Identify “safe spaces”, such as counselors’ offices or designated classrooms, where LGB youth can receive support from administrators, teachers, or other school staff.11
  • Encourage student-led and student-organized school clubs that promote a safe, welcoming, and accepting school environment (e.g., gay-straight alliances or gender and sexuality alliances, which are school clubs open to youth of all sexual orientations and genders).11-13
  • Ensure that health curricula or educational materials include HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention information that is relevant to LGB youth (such as ensuring that curricula or materials use language and terminology.11,14
  • Provide trainings to school staff on how to create safe and supportive school environments for all students, regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity, and encourage staff to attend these trainings.11,15
  • Facilitate access to community-based providers who have experience providing health services, including HIV/STD testing and counseling, social, and psychological services to LGBTQ youth.11,16

More Resources for Educators and School Administrators

What Parents Can Do

Positive parenting practices, such as having honest and open conversations, can help reduce teen health risk behaviors. How parents engage with their LGB teen can have a tremendous impact on their adolescent’s current and future mental and physical health.17 Supportive and accepting parents can help youth cope with the challenges of being an LGB teen.18 On the other hand, unsupportive parents who react negatively to learning that their daughter or son is LGB can make it harder for their teen to thrive. Parental rejection has been linked to depression, use of drugs and alcohol, and risky sexual behavior among teens.19,20

To be supportive, parents should talk openly and supportively with their teen about any problems or concerns. It is also important for parents to watch for behaviors that might indicate their teen is a victim of bullying or violence?or that their teen may be victimizing others. If bullying, violence, or depression is suspected, parents should take immediate action, working with school personnel and other adults in the community.

More Resources for Parents to Help Them Better Understand and Respond to the Needs of LGBTQ Adolescents

Ways Parents Can Influence the Health of Their LGB Youth

More research is needed to better understand the associations between parenting and the health of LGB youth. The following are research-based steps parents can take to support the health and well-being of their LGB teen:

Talk and listen. Parents who talk with and listen to their teen in a way that invites an open discussion about sexual orientation can help their teen feel loved and supported. Parents should have honest conversations with their teens about sex and how to avoid risky behaviors and unsafe situations.

Provide support. Parents who take time to come to terms with how they feel about their teen’s sexual orientation will be more able to respond calmly and use respectful language. Parents should develop common goals with their teen, including being healthy and doing well in school.

Stay involved. Parents who make an effort to know their teen’s friends and know what their teen is doing can help their teen stay safe and feel cared about.

Be proactive. Parents can access many organizations and online information resources to learn more about how they can support their LGB teen, other family members, and their teen’s friends.

Get more information from the CDC Fact Sheet: Parents’ Influence on the Health of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Teens [3 page PDF – 254 KB].

More resources for LGBTQ youth and their friends can be found on CDC’s web page

References

1.Espelage DL, Aragon SR, Birkett M. Homophobic teasing, psychological outcomes, and sexual orientation among high school students: What influence do parents and schools have?[PDF – 104 KB] School Psychology Review 2008;37:202–216.

2.Coker TR, Austin SB, Schuster MA. The health and health care of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents. Annual Review of Public Health 2010;31:457–477.

3.Kann L, Olsen EO, McManus T, et al. Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Related Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12 – United States and Selected Sites, 2015. MMWR Surveill Summ 2016; 65(9): 1-202.

4.Bouris A, Everett BG, Heath RD, Elsaesser CE, Neilands TB. Effects of Victimization and Violence on Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors Among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents. LGBT Health 2016; 3(2): 153-61.

5.Huebner DM, Thoma BC, Neilands TB. School victimization and substance use among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents. Prev Sci 2015; 16(5): 734-43.

6.Russell ST, Ryan C, Toomey RB, Diaz RM, Sanchez J. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescent school victimization: implications for young adult health and adjustment. Journal of School Health. 2011;81(5):223-30.

7.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2014; vol. 26. Published November 2015. Accessed October 2016.

8.Goodenow C, Szalacha L, Westheimer K. School support groups, other school factors, and the safety of sexual minority adolescents. Psychology in the Schools 2006;43:573–89.

9.Saewcy EM, Konishi C, Rose HA, Homma Y. School-based strategies to reduce suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and discrimination among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents in Western Canada. International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies 2014;1:89?112.

10.Hatzenbuehler ML, Keyes KM. Inclusive anti-bullying policies reduce suicide attempts in lesbian and gay youth. J Adolesc Health. 2013; 53(1 suppl):S21—S26.

11.Hatzenbuehler ML, Birkett M, Van Wagenen A, Meyer IH. Protective school climates and reduced risk for suicide ideation in sexual minority youth. Am J Pub Health. 2014;104(2):279-286.

12.Saewcy EM, Konishi C, Rose HA, Homma Y. School-based strategies to reduce suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and discrimination among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents in Western Canada. International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies 2014;1:89?112.

13.Heck NC, Livingston NA, Flentje A, Oost K, Stewart BT, Cochran BN. Reducing risk for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Addictive Behaviors. 2014;39:824-828.

14.Mustanski B, Greene GJ, Ryan D, Whitton SW. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Efficacy of an Online Sexual Health Promotion Program for LGBT Youth: The Queer Sex Ed Intervention. J Sex Res 2015; 52(2): 220-30.

15.De Pedro KT, Esqueda MC, Gilreath TD. School Protective Factors and Substance Use Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents in California Public Schools. LGBT Health. 2017 Jun;4(3):210-216. doi: 10.1089/lgbt.2016.0132. Epub 2017 May 12.

16.José A. Bauermeister, Emily S. Pingel, Laura Jadwin-Cakmak, Gary W. Harper, Keith Horvath, Gretchen Weiss, and Patricia Dittus. Acceptability and Preliminary Efficacy of a Tailored Online HIV/STI Testing Intervention for Young Men who have Sex with Men: The Get Connected! Program. AIDS Behav. 2015 Oct; 19(10): 1860–1874.

17.Bouris A, Guilamo-Ramos V, Pickard A, Shiu C, Loosier PS, Dittus P, Gloppen K, Waldmiller JM. A systematic review of parental influences on the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth: time for new public health research and practice agenda. Journal of Primary Prevention 2010;3:273–309.

18.Ryan C, Russell ST, Huebner D, Diaz R, Sanchez J. Family acceptance in adolescence and the health of LGBT young adults. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs 2010; 23(4): 205-13.

19.Ryan C, Huebner D, Diaz RM, Sanchez J. Family rejection as a predictor of negative health outcomes in white and Latino lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. Pediatrics 2009;123:346–352.

20.Puckett JA, Woodward EN, Mereish EH, Pantalone DW. Parental Rejection Following Sexual Orientation Disclosure: Impact on Internalized Homophobia, Social Support, and Mental Health. LGBT Health 2015; 2(3): 265-9.

Source: www.cdc.gov/lgbthealth/youth.htm  

Suicide among LGBT youth - Wikipedia


The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (January 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Researchers have found that attempted suicide rates and suicidal ideation among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth is comparatively higher than among the general population.[1][2][3][4][5][6] LGBT teens and young adults have one of the highest rates of suicide attempts.[7][8] According to some groups, this is linked to heterocentric cultures and institutionalised homophobia in some cases, including the use of rights and protections for LGBT people as a political wedge issue like in the contemporary efforts to halt legalising same-sex marriages.[9][10][11] Depression and drug use among LGBT people have both been shown to increase significantly after new laws that discriminate against gay people are passed.[12]

Research on completed suicides in sexual minorities is preliminary. A 2014 study reported that members of the LGBT community had higher rates of all-cause mortality, and those living in areas with a higher degree of social stigma towards homosexuality tended to complete suicide at a younger age.[13] A 2017 follow up failed to replicate these results,[14] and an investigation by the original authors revealed a coding error that, once corrected, eliminated the link between stigma and mortality risk.[15]

Bullying of LGBT youth has been shown to be a contributing factor in many suicides, even if not all of the attacks have been specifically addressing sexuality or gender.[16] Since a series of suicides in the early 2000s, more attention has been focused on the issues and underlying causes in an effort to reduce suicides among LGBTQ youth. The Family Acceptance Project's research has demonstrated that "parental acceptance, and even neutrality, with regard to a child's sexual orientation" can bring down the attempted suicide rate.[7] Suicidal ideation and attempts seem to be roughly the same for heterosexual youth as for youth counterparts who have same-sex attractions and behavior but do not identify as being LGBTQ.[17] This correlates with the findings of a large survey of US adults that found higher rates of "mood and anxiety disorders, key risk factors for suicidal behavior", are linked to people who identify as gay, lesbian, and bisexual, rather than sexual behaviors, especially for men.[18]

The National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention notes that there is no national data (for the U.S.) regarding suicidal ideation or suicide rates among the LGBT population as a whole or in part, for LGBT youth or LGBT seniors, for example.[19] In part because there is no agreed percentage of the national population that is LGBTQ, or even identifies as LGBTQ, also death certificates do not include sexuality information.[9] A 1986 study noted that previous large scale studies of completed suicides did not "consider sexual orientation in their data analyses".[20]

Reports and studies

Clinical social worker Caitlin Ryan's Family Acceptance Project (San Francisco State University) conducted the first study of the effect of family acceptance and rejection on the health, mental health and well-being of LGBT youth, including suicide, HIV/AIDS and homelessness.[21] Their research shows that LGBT youths "who experience high levels of rejection from their families during adolescence (when compared with those young people who experienced little or no rejection from parents and caregivers) were more than eight times likely to have attempted suicide, more than six times likely to report high levels of depression, more than three times likely to use illegal drugs and more than three times likely to be at high risk for HIV or other STDs" by the time they reach their early 20s.[21][dead link]

Numerous studies have shown that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth have a higher rate of suicide attempts than do heterosexual youth. The Suicide Prevention Resource Center synthesized these studies and estimated that between 5 and 10% of LGBT youth, depending on age and sex groups, have attempted suicide, a rate 1.5-3 times higher than heterosexual youth.[22] A U.S. government study, titled Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide, published in 1989, found that LGBT youth are four times more likely to attempt suicide than other young people.[23] This higher prevalence of suicidal ideation and overall mental health problems among gay teenagers compared to their heterosexual peers has been attributed to minority stress.[24][25] "More than 34,000 people die by suicide each year," making it "the third leading cause of death among 15 to 24 year olds with lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth attempting suicide up to four times more than their heterosexual peers."[26]

It is impossible to know the exact suicide rate of LGBT youth because sexuality and gender minorities are often hidden and even unknown, particularly in this age group. Further research is currently being done to explain the prevalence of suicide among LGBT youths.[27][28][29]

In terms of school climate, "approximately 25 percent of lesbian, gay and bisexual students and university employees have been harassed due to their sexual orientation, as well as a third of those who identify as transgender, according to the study and reported by the Chronicle of Higher Education."[30] Research has found the presence of gay-straight alliances (GSAs) in schools is associated with decreased suicide attempts; in a study of LGBT youth, ages 13–22, 16.9% of youth who attended schools with GSAs attempted suicide versus 33.1% of students who attended schools without GSAs.[31]

"LGBT students are three times as likely as non-LGBT students to say that they do not feel safe at school (22% vs. 7%) and 90% of LGBT students (vs. 62% of non-LGBT teens) have been harassed or assaulted during the past year."[32] In addition, "LGBQ students were more likely than heterosexual students to have seriously considered leaving their institution as a result of harassment and discrimination."[33] Susan Rankin, a contributing author to the report in Miami, found that “Unequivocally, The 2010 State of Higher Education for LGBT People demonstrates that LGBT students, faculty and staff experience a ‘chilly’ campus climate of harassment and far less than welcoming campus communities."[33]

The internet is also an important factor for LGBT. An international study found that suicidal LGBT showed important differences with suicidal heterosexuals, in a matched-pairs study.[34] That study found suicidal LGBT were more likely to communicate suicidal intentions, more likely to search for new friends online, and found more support online than did suicidal heterosexuals.

Developmental psychology perspectives

The diathesis-stress model suggests that biological vulnerabilities predispose individuals to different conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and mental health conditions like major depression, a risk factor for suicide. Varying amounts of environmental stress increase the probability that these individuals will develop that condition. Minority stress theory suggests that minority status leads to increased discrimination from the social environment which leads to greater stress and health problems. In the presence of poor emotion regulation skills this can lead to poor mental health. Also, the differential susceptibility hypothesis suggests that for some individuals their physical and mental development is highly dependent on their environment in a “for-better-and-for-worse” fashion. That is, individuals who are highly susceptible will have better than average health in highly supportive environments and significantly worse than average health in hostile, violent environments. The model can help explain the unique health problems affecting LGBT populations including increased suicide attempts. For adolescents, the most relevant environments are the family, neighborhood, and school. Adolescent bullying - which is highly prevalent among sexual minority youths - is a chronic stressor that can increase risk for suicide via the diathesis-stress model. In a study of American lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents, Mark Hatzenbuehler examined the effect of the county-level social environment.[36] This was indexed by the proportion of same-sex couples and Democrats living in the counties. Also included were the proportions of schools with gay-straight alliances as well as anti-bullying and antidiscrimination policies that include sexual orientation. He found that a more conservative social environment elevated risk in suicidal behavior among all youth and that this effect was stronger for LGB youth. Furthermore, he found that the social environment partially mediated the relation between LGB status and suicidal behaviour. Hatzenbuehler found that even after such social as well as individual factors were controlled for, however, that "LGB status remained a significant predictor of suicide attempts."

Institutionalized and internalized homophobia

Institutionalized and internalized homophobia may also lead LGBT youth to not accept themselves and have deep internal conflicts about their sexual orientation.[37] Parents may force children out of home after the child's coming out.[38]

Homophobia arrived at by any means can be a gateway to bullying which can take many forms. Physical bullying is kicking, punching, while emotional bullying is name calling, spreading rumors and other verbal abuse. Cyber bullying involves abusive text messages or messages of the same nature on Facebook, Twitter, and other social media networks. Sexual bullying is inappropriate touching, lewd gestures or jokes.[39]

Bullying may be considered a "rite of passage",[40] but studies have shown it has negative physical and psychological effects. "Sexual minority youth, or teens that identify themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual, are bullied two to three times more than heterosexuals", and "almost all transgender students have been verbally harassed (e.g., called names or threatened in the past year at school because of their sexual orientation (89%) and gender expression (89%)") according to Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network's Harsh Realities, The Experiences of Transgender Youth In Our Nation’s Schools.[26]

This issue has been a hot topic for media outlets over the past few years, and even more so in the months of September and October 2010. President Barack Obama has posted an "It Gets Better" video on The White House website as part of the It Gets Better Project. First lady Michelle Obama attributes such behaviors to the examples parents set as, in most cases, children follow their lead.[41]

Projects

The Trevor Project

"The Trevor Project was founded by director/producer Peggy Rajski, producer Randy Stone and screenwriter James Lecesne, creators of the 1994 Academy Award-winning short film, Trevor, a comedy/drama about a gay 13-year-old boy who, when rejected by friends because of his sexuality, makes an attempt to take his life."[42] They are an American non-profit organization that operates the only nationwide, offering around-the-clock crisis and suicide prevention helpline for LGBTQ youth, the project "is determined to end suicide among LGBTQ youth by providing life-saving and life-affirming resources including our nationwide, 24/7 crisis intervention lifeline, digital community and advocacy/educational programs that create a safe, supportive and positive environment for everyone."[42]

It Gets Better Project

It Gets Better Project is an Internet-based campaign founded in the US by Dan Savage and his partner Terry Miller in September 2010,[43][44] in response to the suicides of teenagers who were bullied because they were gay or because their peers suspected that they were gay. The videos that were posted emphasized the idea that hope is possible despite the bullying that LGBT individuals may face.[45] Its goal is to prevent suicide among LGBT youth by having gay adults convey the message through social media videos that these teens' lives will improve.[46] The project has grown rapidly: over 200 videos were uploaded in the first week,[47] and the project's YouTube channel reached the 650 video limit in the next week.[48] The project is now organized on its own website, the It Gets Better Project,[48] and includes more than 30,000 entries with more than 40 million views from people of all sexual orientations, including many celebrities.[49] A book of essays from the project, It Gets Better: Coming Out, Overcoming Bullying, and Creating a Life Worth Living, was released in March 2011.[50]

In 2017 news emerged of a study that found that asking youth to accept negative experiences as the only coping strategy, potentially exacerbates stress. This study from the University of Arizona, led to claims that the It Gets Better Project may do more harm than good.[51]

Policy responses

A number of policy options have been repeatedly proposed to address this issue. Some advocate intervention at the stage in which youth are already suicidal (such as crisis hotlines), while others advocate programs directed at increasing LGBT youth access to factors found to be "protective" against suicide (such as social support networks or mentors).

One proposed option is to provide LGBT-sensitivity and anti-bullying training to current middle and high school counselors and teachers. Citing a study by Jordan et al., school psychologist Anastasia Hansen notes that hearing teachers make homophobic remarks or fail to intervene when students make such remarks are both positively correlated with negative feelings about an LGBT identity[52] Conversely, a number of researchers have found the presence of LGBT-supportive school staff to be related to "positive outcomes for GLBT youth".[52] Citing a 2006 Psychology in the Schools report, The Trevor Project notes that "lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth who believe they have just one school staff member with whom they can talk about problems are only 1/3 as likely as those without that support to... report making multiple suicide attempts in the past year."[53]

Another frequently proposed policy option involves providing grant incentives for schools to create and/or support Gay-Straight Alliances, student groups dedicated to providing a social support network for LGBT students. Kosciw and Diaz, researchers for the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network, found in a nationwide survey that "students in schools with a GSA were less likely to feel unsafe, less likely to miss school, and more likely to feel that they belonged at their school than students in schools with no such clubs."[54] Studies have shown that social isolation and marginalization at school are psychologically damaging to LGBT students, and that GSAs and other similar peer-support group can be effective providers of this "psychosocial support".[52]

Early interventions for LGBT youth

Be proactive and understanding

Educators can be proactive in helping adolescents with gender identity and the questions/ issues that sometimes come that can help teens so that they do not resort to suicide, drug abuse, homelessness, and many psychological problems. Van Wormer & McKinney (2003)[55] relate that understanding LBGT students is the first step to suicide prevention. They use a harm reduction approach, which meets students where they are to reduce any continued harm linked with their behaviors. They relate that creating a supportive and culturally diverse environment is crucial to social acceptance in an educational setting.

LGBT role models/resources

It is beneficial to hire LGBT teachers to serve as role models and support LGBTQ students. Many of the resources in the U.S. are crisis driven not prevention driven which needs to be the other way around in order to prevent suicide for LGBT adolescents. Furthermore, studies show that counselors and teachers need to be trained in self-awareness, sexuality and sexual diversity with themselves and with students. Researchers also suggest inviting gay/lesbian and bisexual panels from colleges or universities to conduct classroom discussions. Education and resources is key to helping LGBT students and families. According to researcher Rob Cover, role models and resources benefit LGBT youth only if they avoid replicating stereotypes and provide diverse visual and narrative representations to allow broad identification.[56]

Having a PFLAG (Parents Families, and Friends of Lesbians and Gays) and GSA Club are possible resources to promote discussions and leadership roles to LGBT students. These resources extend outside of school and in the community. (Greytak, E. A., Kosciw, J. G., & Boesen, M. J. 2013) report that when schools have a GSA or Gay Straight Alliance club or a club promoting social awareness and camaraderie of sorts, supportive educators, inclusive curricula, and comprehensive policies that LGBT students were victimized less and had more positive school experiences. Students will feel positive and want to be in school.

Teach tolerance and examine a school's climate

Examine a school's climate and teach tolerance – Teaching Tolerance is a movement, magazine and website which gives many tools and ideas to help people be tolerant of one another. It demonstrates that the classroom is a reflection of the world around us. Educators can use Teach Tolerance's website and book to download resources and look up creative ways to learn more about LBGT students and teaching tolerance to their students in the classroom. It helps schools get started with anti-bullying training and professional development and resource suggestions. It even relates common roadblocks and tips to starting a GSA club.

Research shows that a collaborative effort must be made in order to prevent LGBT students from being bullied and/or committing suicide. Teachers, administrators, students, families, and communities need to come together to help LGBT students be confident. Each school has its own individuality, its own sense of "self", whether it be the teachers, administrators, students, or the surrounding community. In order to tackle the issue of bullying for LGBT students it needs to start with understanding the student population and demographic where the school lies. Educating students, faculty, staff, and school boards on LGBT issues and eliminating homophobia and trans phobia in schools, training staff on diversity acceptance and bullying prevention, and implementing Gay-Straight Alliances is key to suicide prevention for LGBT students (Bacon, Laura Ann 2011).[57] Adolescents grow and are shaped by many factors including internal and external features (Swearer, Espelage, Vaillancourt, & Hymel, 2010).

The school climate must foster respect. Thus, setting the tone for administration, teachers, professionals who enter the building, parents and most importantly the students. People, in general, need to understand their own misconceptions and stereotypes of what being LGBT is. Unless students and adults are educated on the LGBT community, than stereotypes and negative attitudes will continue to exist (Knotts, G., & Gregorio, D. 2011).[58] The GMCLA (Gay Men's Chorus of Los Angeles) use music and singing as a vehicle for changing the attitudes and hearts of people in schools nationwide. Their goal is to bring music to standards-driven curriculum to youth with the purpose of teaching content in innovative and meaningful ways. They instill in students and staff techniques to foster positive meaning of the social and personal issues dealt with in school and society.

Gay, L. (2009) has generated a guide to helping school safety/climate and fostering positive interpersonal relationships through "The Safe Space Kit".[59] This tool helps teachers create a safe space for LGBT students. One of the most effective ways for an educator to create a safe space is to be a supportive ally to LGBT students. This kit has numerous tools for teachers and schools to utilize, including: a hard copy of "The Safe Space Kit" includes the "Guide to Being an Ally", stickers and two Safe Space posters. Even utilizing something just to promote awareness, such as using "The Safe Space Kit" could be a good first step for schools to promote responsiveness to LGBT students. Providing some supports rather than none at all can benefit LGBT youth tremendously now and in the future (Greytak, et al. 2013).[60]

OBPP (Olweus Bullying Prevention Program)

OBPP is an anti-bullying program utilized in schools in Europe, Canada and the U.S. Reductions in bullying were due to parent training, playground supervision, home-school communication, classroom rules, and training videos. Furthermore, Swearer, et al. (2010) discuss a "dosage effect" in which the more positive and consistent elements included in a program, the more the likelihood that bullying would decrease. Success in one school does not guarantee success in another because each school has its own social climate. The OBPP is effective but still needs to be analyzed further, since there are many things to consider when implementing this technique within a large school.

Steps To Respect

Steps To Respect is an anti-bullying campaign which can be beneficial in schools as well – it is a comprehensive guide for teachers, administrators, and students utilizing in class lessons and training helping schools foster positive social-emotional skills and conflict resolution. If schools are able to change peer conduct and norms, increase student communication skills, and maintain adult prevention and intervention efforts, the positive effects of their work will strengthen over time (Frey, Edstrom & Hirschstein 2005)[61] and continue to grow as each class progresses through the school system.

Make curriculum changes

According to Russell, S. T., McGuire, J. K., Laub, C., & Manke, E. (2006),[62] it is imperative for educators to make subject and age appropriate lessons with LGBT issues incorporated into the curriculum on a consistent basis utilizing current events, history, literature, or social sciences. Teachers should be trained each year on new practices to employ in their classrooms and in school in general. They should be taught how to handle situations they may face with LGBT students, so that if a problem should arise, they will be confident in their own understandings of the LGBT community and know how to handle any question or situation professionally and empathetically. Russell, et al. (2006) report that state policy and government officials need to be mindful of the ever-changing culture we live in by enforcing and including material appropriate in schools to educate educators on LGBT people in the world.[62]

Burdge, H., Sinclair, K., Laub, C., Russell, S. T. (2012)[63] relate numerous lessons, which each subject area teacher can teach to enforce LGBT inclusivity and school safety. They report that lessons, which promote LGBT inclusivity, can have the greatest impact on school safety. Physical education, health, history, and social studies teachers can educate all students to have more social awareness and create a positive school climate. They continue to note that inviting parents, teachers, administrators and other key stakeholders to identify and/or participate in the development of age-appropriate LGBT-inclusive lessons that teachers can use in their classrooms is most beneficial.

Educators must continue to try new trends, constantly assessing the environment of their school. The best policies and interventions are those, which show positive growth across grade levels. Research should continue to see which programs suit the needs of different schools over a period of time. Since each school varies in many ways, it may be hard to report positive trends. One technique that works in one school may or may not work for another. Therefore, taking pieces of one technique and making it into something that molds best to each school and environment is key

List of LGBT-related suicides

List of suicides which have been attributed to bullying

Coming out

LGBT community

Day of Silence - April 21, 2017

Minority Stress

Self-harm

Suicide intervention

Transgender youth

Violence against LGBT people

LGBT Mormon suicides

The Yogyakarta Principles

Jadin Bell

Suicide of Jamey Rodemeyer

Kenneth Weishuhn

Death of Leelah Alcorn

Suicide of Tyler Clementi

Death of Blake Brockington

Notes

1.Haas, Ann P.; Eliason, Mickey; Mays, Vickie M.; Mathy, Robin M.; Cochran, Susan D.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.; Silverman, Morton M.; Fisher, Prudence W.; Hughes, Tonda; Rosario, Margaret; Russell, Stephen T.; Malley, Effie; Reed, Jerry; Litts, David A.; Haller, Ellen; Sell, Randall L.; Remafedi, Gary; Bradford, Judith; Beautrais, Annette L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Diamond, Gary M.; Friedman, Mark S.; Garofalo, Robert; Turner, Mason S.; Hollibaugh, Amber; Clayton, Paula J. (30 December 2010). "Suicide and Suicide Risk in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations: Review and Recommendations". Journal of Homosexuality. 58 (1): 10–51. doi:10.1080/00918369.2011.534038. PMC 3662085?Freely accessible. PMID 21213174.

2.Proctor, Curtis D.; Groze, Victor K. (1994). "Risk Factors for Suicide among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youths". Social Work. 39 (5): 504–513. doi:10.1093/sw/39.5.504.

3.Remafedi, Gary; Farrow, James A.; Deisher, Robert W. (1991). "Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide in Gay and Bisexual Youth". Pediatrics. 87 (6): 869–875.

4.Russell, Stephen T.; Joyner, Kara (2001). "Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk: Evidence From a National Study". American Journal of Public Health. 91 (8): 1276–1281. doi:10.2105/AJPH.91.8.1276. PMC 1446760?Freely accessible. PMID 11499118.

5.Hammelman, Tracie L. (1993). "Gay and Lesbian Youth". Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy. 2 (1): 77–89. doi:10.1300/J236v02n01_06.

6.Johnson, R. B.; Oxendine, S.; Taub, D. J.; Robertson, J. (2013). "Suicide Prevention for LGBT Students". New Directions for Student Services. 2013: 55–69. doi:10.1002/ss.20040.

7.Tolerance Can Lower Gay Kids' Suicide Risk, Joseph Shapiro, All Things Considered, National Public Radio, December 29, 2008. [1]

8.Bagley, Christopher; Tremblay, Pierre (2000). "Elevated rates of suicidal behavior in gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth". Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention. 21 (3): 111–117. doi:10.1027/0227-5910.21.3.111.

9.National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention Tackles LGBT Suicide, April 26, 2012, Kellan Baker and Josh Garcia. [2]

10. Simone, Mark J.; Appelbaum, Jonathan S. (2011). "Addressing the Needs of Older Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults". Clinical Geriatrics. 19 (2): 38–45.

11. Yardain Amron (November 24, 2013). "Research exposes negative effects of anti-gay legislation". The Michigan Daily.

12. "The Impact of Institutional Discrimination on Psychiatric Disorders in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: A Prospective Study by Mark L. Hatzenbuehler, MS, MPhil, Katie A. McLaughlin, PhD, Katherine M. Keyes, MPH and Deborah S. Hasin, PhD". Ajph.aphapublications.org. 2010-01-14. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.168815. Retrieved 2011-08-21.

13. Hatzenbuehler, ML; et al. (Feb 2014). "Structural stigma and all-cause mortality in sexual minority populations". Soc Sci Med. 103: 33–41. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.06.005. PMC 3818511?Freely accessible. PMID 23830012.

14.Regnerus, Mark (Sep 2017). "Is structural stigma's effect on the mortality of sexual minorities robust? A failure to replicate the results of a published study". Soc Sci Med. 188: 157–165. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.11.018. PMC 1?Freely accessible.

15.Hatzenbuehler, ML; et al. "Corrigendum to "Structural stigma and all-cause mortality in sexual minority populations"". Soc Sci Med. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.11.043.

16.Savin-Williams, Ritch C (1994). "Verbal and physical abuse as stressors in the lives of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths: Associations with school problems, running away, substance abuse, prostitution, and suicide". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 62 (2): 261–269. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.62.2.261.

17.Zhao, Y.; Montoro, R.; Igartua, K.; Thombs (2010). "unsure" sexual identity or heterosexual identity plus same-sex attraction or behavior: Forgotten groups?". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 49 (2): 104–113. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2009.11.003.

18. Bostwick W. B., Boyd C. J., Hughes T. L., McCabe S. E. Dimensions of sexual orientation and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in the United States" American Journal of Public Health2010;100(3):468–475.

19.National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention Tackles LGBT Suicide, April 26, 2012, Kellan Baker and Josh Garcia. National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention

20.Rich, C. L.; Fowler, R. C.; Young, D.; Blenkush, M. (1986). "San Diego Suicide Study: Comparison of Gay to Straight Males". Suicide and Life-Threat Behavior. 16: 448–457. doi:10.1111/j.1943-278X.1986.tb00730.x.

21.Helping LGBT youth, others learn to cope, April 27, 2012, Visalia Times-Delta. [3]

22. "Preventing Suicide among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgendered, and Questioning Youth and Young Adults" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-08-21.

23."Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide". Eric.ed.gov. Retrieved 2011-08-21.

24.August 21, 2011 (1999-10-27). "Definition of Bisexual suicide risk". Medterms.com. Retrieved 2011-08-21.

25.Meyer IH (September 2003). "Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence". Psychological Bulletin. 129 (5): 674–97. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.674. PMC 2072932?Freely accessible. PMID 12956539.

26."Additional Facts about Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth". Thetrevorproject.org. Retrieved 2011-08-21.

27."Sexual Orientation and Youth Suicide" by Dr. Gary Remafedi, October 6, 1999, retrieved 2 May 2006.

28. "Youth suicide risk and sexual orientation - Statistical Data Included" by Rutter, Philip A & Soucar, Emil, Summer 2002, retrieved 2 May 2006.

29.J Articles Relating to Suicide by GLB Youth, retrieved 3 May 2006.

30. Wienerbronner, Danielle (2010-09-15). "LGBT Students Harassed At Colleges Nationwide, New Report Says". Huffington Post.

31. Walls, N. Eugene; Wisneski, Hope; Kane, Sarah (March 2013). "School climate, individual support, or both? Gay straight alliances and the mental health of sexual minority youth". School Social Work Journal. 37 (2): 88–111.

32. "Additional Facts About Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth". Thetrevorproject.org. Retrieved 2011-08-21.

33.Rothaus, Steve (2010-09-15). "Steve Rothaus' Gay South Florida". Miamiherald.typepad.com. Retrieved 2011-08-21.

34. Harris, K. M. (2013). "Sexuality and suicidality: Matched-pairs analyses reveal unique characteristics in non-heterosexual suicidal behaviors". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 42 (5): 729–737. doi:10.1007/s10508-013-0112-2. PMID 23657812.

35.Lloyd, Peter. "Nearly 20 per cent of Taiwan's gay population have attempted suicide, report claims". Pink Paper. Archived from the original on 14 July 2012.

36. "The Social Environment and Suicide Attempts inLesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth", Pediatrics, 127 (5): 896–903, 2011, doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3020

37.Gibson, P. (1989), “Gay and Lesbian Youth Suicide”, in Fenleib, Marcia R. (ed.), Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide, United States Government Printing Office, ISBN 0-16-002508-7

38.Adler, Margot (November 20, 2011). "Young, Gay And Homeless: Fighting For Resources". NPR.

39.Janice L. Habuda (2010-10-29). "Students learn about bullying". Buffalonews.com. Retrieved 2011-08-21.

40. Levinson, David. Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment, Volumes 1-4. p. 137. ISBN 9780761922582.

41. "Michelle Obama On Bullying: Adults Need To Set Example". Huffingtonpost.com. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2011-08-21.

42.About Trevor Archived October 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.

43.Wyatt Buchanan (October 21, 2005). "Marriage can be right for us all, says Dan Savage. But let's not get carried away with monogamy". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on January 6, 2012. Retrieved April 30, 2011.

44. "Video: Authors @Google: Dan Savage and Terry Miller on the It Gets Better Project | It Gets Better Project". Itgetsbetter.org. Retrieved 2011-08-21.

45."What is the It Gets Better Project?". It Gets Better. Retrieved 2017-10-07.

46.Parker-Pope, Tara (September 22, 2010). "Showing Gay Teens a Happy Future". The New York Times.

47.Savage, Dan. "Welcome to the It Gets Better Project". Retrieved 2010-10-12.

48.Hartlaub, Peter (2010-10-08). "Dan Savage overwhelmed by gay outreach's response". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2010-10-09.

49.Noreen Fagan (8 February 2011). "Dan Savage talks teens, straight people and It Gets Better". Xtra!. Retrieved 15 February 2011.

50.Furlan, Julia (March 22, 2011). "The 'It Gets Better Project' Turns the Spotlight on Anti-Gay Bullying". WNYC. Retrieved March 30, 2011.

51.Avery, Dan (2017-05-15). ""It Gets Better" Is Bad Advice For Gay Kids, Study Claims".

52."Hansen, Anastasia. "School-Based Support for GLBT Students: A Review of Three Levels of Research." Psychology in the Schools. 44.8(2007). 839-848". Eric.ed.gov:80. Retrieved 2011-08-21.

53. "EDUCATOR RESOURCE GUIDE" (PDF). The Trevor Project. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 7, 2012.

54."2005 NSCS Final v6.pdf" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-06-18. Retrieved 2011-08-21.

55.Van Wormer, K; McKinney, R (2003). "What schools can do to help gay/lesbian/bisexual youth: A harm reduction approach". Adolescence. 38 (151): 409–420.

56.Cover, Rob. (2012). Queer Youth Suicide, Culture and Identity: Unliveable Lives? Ashgate, ISBN 9781409444473

57. Bacon, Laura Ann, "A Study of Effective Strategies, Programs, and Policies for School Leaders in Protecting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth from Peer Victimization" (2011). Electronic Theses & Dissertations. Paper 380.

58.Knotts, G.; Gregorio, D. (2011). "Confronting homophobia at school: High school students and the gay men's chorus of Los Angeles". Journal of LGBT Youth. 8 (1): 66–83. doi:10.1080/19361653.2011.519193.

59.Gay, L. (2009). The Safe Space Kit: Guide to Being an Ally to LGBT Students. Gay, Lesbian And Straight Education Network (GLSEN)

60.Greytak, E. A.; Kosciw, J. G.; Boesen, M. J. (2013). "Putting the "T" in "Resource": The Benefits of LGBT-Related School Resources for Transgender Youth". Journal of LGBT Youth. 10 (1–2): 45–63. doi:10.1080/19361653.2012.718522.

61.Steps to Respect (Frey, Edstrom and Hirschstein 2005; Frey et al. 2005; Hirschtein et al. 20070; category 6

62.Russell, S. T., McGuire, J. K., Laub, C., & Manke, E. (2006). LGBT Student Safety: Steps Schools Can Take.(California Safe Schools Coalition Research Brief No. 3) San Francisco, CA: California Safe Schools Coalition

63.Burdge, H., Sinclair, K., Laub, C., Russell, S. T. (2012). Lessons That Matter: LGBTQ Inclusivity and School Safety. (GayStraight Alliance Network and California Safe Schools Coalition Research Brief No. 14). San Francisco, CA: Gay-Straight Alliance Network.

Further reading

Cover, R. (2012). Queer Youth Suicide, Culture and Identity: Unliveable Lives? Ashgate, ISBN 9781409444473.

Diamond, L (2003). "Was it a phase? Young women's relinquishment of lesbian/bisexual identities over a 5-year period". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 84 (2): 352–364. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.352. PMID 12585809.

Diamond, L (2008). "Female Bisexuality From Adolescence to Adulthood: Results From a 10-Year Longitudinal Study". Developmental Psychology. 44 (1): 5–14. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.44.1.5. PMID 18194000.

Haas, A. P.; Eliason, M.; Mays, V. M.; Mathy, R. M.; Cochran, S. D.; D'Augelli, A. R.; Silverman, M. M.; et al. (2011). "Suicide and suicide risk in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations: review and recommendations". Journal of Homosexuality. 58 (1): 10–51. doi:10.1080/00918369.2011.534038. PMC 3662085?Freely accessible. PMID 21213174.

Hatzenbuehler, M. L. (2009). "How does sexual minority stigma "get under the skin"? A psychological mediation framework". Psychological Bulletin. 135 (5): 707–730. doi:10.1037/a0016441. PMC 2789474?Freely accessible. PMID 19702379.

Helling, S., Levy, D. S., & Herbst, D. (2010, October). Tormented to Death? People Magazine, 56. New York, NY.

Kann, L., Olsen, E. O., McManus, T., Kinchen, S., Chyen, D., Harris, W. A., & Wechsler, H. (2011). Sexual identity, sex of sexual contacts, and health-risk behaviors among students in grades 9–12 – youth risk behavior surveillance, selected sites, United States, 2001–2009. * MMWR Surveillance summaries Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance summaries CDC, 60(7), 1-133.

Marshal, M. P.; Dietz, L. J.; Friedman, M. S.; Stall, R.; Smith, H. A.; McGinley, J.; Thoma, B. C.; et al. (2011). "Suicidality and Depression Disparities Between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review". The Journal of Adolescent Health. 49 (2): 115–23. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.02.005.

Mayock, P.; Bryan, A.; Carr, N. & Kitching, K. (2009) "Supporting LGBT Lives: A Study of the Mental Health and Well-Being of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People" Dublin: BeLonG To Youth Services

O'Donnell, S.; Meyer, I. H.; Schwartz, S. (2011). "Increased risk of suicide attempts among Black and Latino lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals". American Journal of Public Pealth. 101 (6): 1055–9. doi:10.2105/ajph.2010.300032.

Russell, S. T.; Clarke, T. J.; Clary, J. (2009). "Are Teens "'Post-Gay'"? Contemporary Adolescents' Sexual Identity Labels". Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 38: 884–90. doi:10.1007/s10964-008-9388-2.

Savin-Williams, R. (2005). The New Gay Teenager. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Savin-Williams, R. C. (2008). "Then and Now: Recruitment, Definition, Diversity, and Positive Attributes of Same-Sex Populations". Developmental Psychology. 44 (1): 135–138. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.44.1.135. PMID 18194012.

Savin-Williams, R. C.; Ream, G. L. (2003). "Suicide attempts among sexual-minority male youth". Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 32 (4): 509–522. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3204_3. PMID 14710459.

Savin-Williams, R. C.; Ream, G. L. (2007). "Prevalence and stability of sexual orientation components during adolescence and young adulthood". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 36 (3): 385–94. doi:10.1007/s10508-006-9088-5. PMID 17195103.

Savin-williams, R. C. (2006). "Who' s Gay ? Does It Matter ?". Current Directions in Psychological Science. 15 (1): 40–45. doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2006.00403.x.

Savin-williams, R. C., Cohen, K. M., & Youth, G. (2005). Development of Same-Sex Attracted Youth. Development, 1979(2004).

Schwartz, S.; Meyer, I. H. (1982). "Mental health disparities research: the impact of within and between group analyses on tests of social stress hypotheses". Social Science & Medicine. 70 (8): 1111–8. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.11.032.

Selby, E. A.; Anestis, M. D.; Bender, T. W.; Ribeiro, J. D.; Nock, M. K.; Rudd, M. D.; Bryan, C. J.; et al. (2010). "Clinical Psychology Review Overcoming the fear of lethal injury : Evaluating suicidal behavior in the military through the lens of the Interpersonal – Psychological Theory of Suicide". Clinical Psychology Review. 30 (3): 298–307. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.12.004.

Orden, Van; Witte, T. K.; Cukrowicz, K. C.; Braithwaite, S. R.; Selby; Joiner, T. E. (2010). "The interpersonal theory of suicide". Psychological Review. 117 (2): 575–600. doi:10.1037/a0018697.

Young, R. M.; Meyer, I. H. (2005). "The trouble with "MSM" and "WSW": erasure of the sexual-minority person in public health discourse". American Journal of Public Health. 95 (7): 1144–9. doi:10.2105/ajph.2004.046714. PMC 1449332?Freely accessible. PMID 15961753.

Best Practices: Creating an LGBT-inclusive School Climate. (n.d.). Retrieved July 24, 2016, from http://www.tolerance.org/lgbt-best-practices

References

One of the two most complete Internet Resource on gay and bisexual male suicide problems

Tabulated basic results of about 150 LGBT suicidality studies from 1970 to 2013

Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suicide_among_LGBT_youth

Suicide crisis A suicide crisis, suicidal crisis, attempted suicide or potential suicide, is a situation in which a person is attempting to kill themselves or is seriously contemplating or planning to do so. It is considered by public safety authorities, medical practice, and emergency services to be a medical emergency, requiring immediate suicide intervention and emergency medical treatment. Suicidal presentations occur when there is an emotional problem or predicament that the individual cannot solve and suicide seems like a solution. Clinicians should reframe suicidal crises, point out that suicide is not a solution and help the individual identify and solve or tolerate the problems[1]

Suicide Crisis:

Social aspects

Suicide types

Epidemiology

History

Related

Locations ·

United States

  • Suicide hotline on the George Washington Memorial Bridge, Seattle, WashingtonGolden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, California — official count halted at 997 to prevent "record breakers"[3][4]
  • Colorado Street Bridge in Pasadena, California has been the host of numerous falls/jumps starting as early as its construction, when a worker who had been drinking fell off the bridge into wet cement. It has hosted many suicides since, and a large barrier/fence has been installed to keep people from jumping.[citation needed]
  • Coronado Bridge, San Diego, California — more than 200 suicides (1972–2000)[27]
  • George Washington Bridge between New Jersey and New York City — It has been averaging around 10 suicides per year and a record 18 in 2012.[28][29]
  • George Washington Memorial Bridge ("Aurora Bridge"), Seattle, Washington — more than 230 suicides since 1932,[30] with more than 50 from 1997–2007[31]
  • Sunshine Skyway Bridge, Tampa Bay, Florida — At least 130 people have committed suicide by jumping from the center span into the waters of Tampa Bay since the opening of the new bridge in 1987 and an estimated 10 others have tried, but survived. In response, the State of Florida installed six crisis hotline phones along the center span in 1999, and began 24-hour patrols. As of 2003, the call center had received 18 calls from potential jumpers, all of whom survived.[32] However, the total number of jumpers has not significantly declined since the introduction of these safeguards.[citation needed] The song, "Skyway Avenue," by We The Kings is about two lovers who decide to jump to their deaths together from this bridge.[33]
  • Prince Edward Viaduct, Toronto, Ontario — A suicide barrier was installed.
  • Jacques Cartier Bridge, Montreal, Quebec — more than 143 suicides. Suicide barriers were erected in 2003.[34]
  • Cornell University gorge bridges — a location for suicides in the 1970s, 1990s, and in the 2009–2010 school year. The university responded by posting security guards at the bridges. Later, safety nets were added below each bridge.[citation needed]
  • Foresthill Bridge in Auburn, California — estimated 65 suicides since construction in 1973, actual number likely higher[35][36]
  • New River Gorge Bridge in Fayetteville, West Virginia[37][38]
  • Niagara Falls — between 1856 and 1995 there were 2,780 known suicides; and there are 20 to 25 per year.[39]
  • Vista Bridge, Portland, Oregon — averages four suicides a year[40]
  • Tappan Zee Bridge, Tarrytown, New York — more than 30 suicides between 2002 and 2012; sometimes referred to as "the Golden Gate Bridge of the East"[41]
  • Toronto Transit Commission subway and rapid transit network — 150 people have killed themselves, and there have been an additional 100 attempts between 1998 and 2007.[42][43][44]
  • Arrigoni Bridge, Middletown, Connecticut[45][46]
  • Governor Thomas Johnson Bridge, Southern Maryland - At least 14 people have successfully committed suicide, while more have survived the jump. Suicide hotline signs have been placed at the peak of the bridge (140 feet above the water).[citation needed]

Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_suicide_sites

Suicide prevention contract

Help Categories

Source:/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suicide_among_LGBT_youth

 
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